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They became defenders of the Crusader states in the Holy Land and were known as brave, highly skilled warriors.

The group developed a reputation as fierce fighters during the Crusades, driven by religious fervor and forbidden from retreating unless significantly outnumbered.

The Templars built numerous castles and fought — and often won — battles against Islamic armies. Their fearless style of fighting became a model for other military orders.

In the late 12th century, Muslim armies retook Jerusalem and turned the tide of the Crusades, forcing the Knights Templar to relocate several times.

The Fall of Acre in marked the destruction of the last remaining Crusader refuge in the Holy Land. European support of the military campaigns in the Holy Land began to erode over the decades that followed.

By , the Knights Templar lost its foothold in the Muslim world and established a base of operations in Paris. There, King Philip IV of France resolved to bring down the order, perhaps because the Templars had denied the indebted ruler additional loans.

Many of the knights were brutally tortured until they confessed to false charges, which included heresy, homosexuality, financial corruption, devil worshipping, fraud, spitting on the cross and more.

A few years later, dozens of Templars were burned at the stake in Paris for their confessions. De Molay was executed in The Catholic Church has acknowledged that the persecution of the Knights Templar was unjustified.

The church claims that Pope Clement was pressured by secular rulers to destroy the order. While most historians agree that the Knights Templar fully disbanded years ago, there are some people who believe the order went underground and remains in existence in some form to this day.

Currently, there are several international organizations styled after the Knights Templar that the public can join. These groups have representatives around the world and aim to uphold the values and traditions of the original medieval order.

More recently, stories about the legendary Templars have found their way into popular books and movies. The popular novel and film The Da Vinci Code presents a theory that the Templars were involved in a conspiracy to preserve the bloodline of Jesus Christ.

Here is a quote from Menestrier, a 17th-century writer on chivalry: Sometimes, when some male fiefs were conceded by special privilege to women, they took the rank of chevaleresse, as one sees plainly in Hemricourt where women who were not wives of knights are called chevaleresses.

It was the first religious order of knighthood to grant the rank of militissa to women. However, this order was suppressed by Sixtus V in In his Glossarium s.

Gertrude in Nivelles Brabant , after a probation of 3 years, are made knights militissae at the altar, by a male knight called in for that purpose, who gives them the accolade with a sword and pronounces the usual words.

The inhabitants [of Tortosa] being at length reduced to great streights, desired relief of the Earl, but he, being not in a condition to give them any, they entertained some thoughts of making a surrender.

The Earl, finding himself obliged, by the gallentry of the action, thought fit to make his acknowlegements thereof, by granting them several Privileges and Immunities, and to perpetuate the memory of so signal an attempt, instituted an Order, somewhat like a Military Order, into which were admitted only those Brave Women, deriving the honour to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Badge, a thing like a Fryars Capouche, sharp at the top, after the form of a Torch, and of a crimson colour, to be worn upon their Head-clothes.

He also ordained, that at all publick meetings, the women should have precedence of the Men. That they should be exempted from all Taxes, and that all the Apparel and Jewels, though of never so great value, left by their dead Husbands, should be their own.

These Women having thus acquired this Honour by their personal Valour, carried themselves after the Military Knights of those days. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 February For other uses, see knight disambiguation and knights disambiguation.

For the Roman social class sometimes referred to as "knights", see Equites. Medieval and Early Modern Times.

Knights were often vassals, or lesser nobles, who fought on behalf of lords in return for land. Papers from an International Symposium , ed.

Jones and Roy Wisbey. The knight in medieval England, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 18 January The entry on cabullus in the Oxford Latin Dictionary Oxford: Clarendon Press, , reprinting , p.

Papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference History of the Medieval Knight". Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages. University of California Press.

Charles Anderson Read, ed. The Cabinet of Irish Literature, Vol. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. A Sign of the Times in the Light of Faith.

Colish, The Mirror of Language: Yale University Press February 11, Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England: Expanding His Critical Contexts.

An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World, Volume 1. Greenwood August 15, Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present. Oxford University Press; 1st edition July 22, Journal of Medieval Military History: Boydell Press November 18, From Spartacus to Spitfires.

Canary Press August 15, The image of aristocracy in Britain, — 1. Retrieved 4 December Ker , Epic And Romance: Essays on Medieval Literature pp.

The Knight in History. Harper Perennial July 26, What is a Knight. Archived from the original on The London Gazette Supplement.

Clarendon Press , Feudal Society , 2nd ed. The Knights of the Crown: Boydell Press , An Historical Guide to Arms and Armour. Warfare in the Medieval World , UK: Boydell Press, Woodbridge Clark, Hugh A Concise History of Knighthood: The replacement of the longbow by handguns.

From the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries. Text, Context, and Translation. Yale University Press, Laing, Lloyd and Jennifer Laing.

The Age of Chivalry. A Knight and his Horse , 2nd ed. The Medieval Knight at War. The Knights of England: A Complete Record from the Earliest Time.

Nicolle, David , ed. Administrative detainee Alien illegal immigrant refugee Citizen dual or multiple native-born naturalized second-class Convicted Migrant worker Political prisoner Stateless.

Lower middle class Upper middle class Bourgeoisie Petite bourgeoisie. Working poor Proletariat Lumpenproletariat. Aristocracy Hanseaten Patrician Royal family.

By country or region. Household Inequality Personal Poverty. Educational attainment Homelessness Home ownership Wealth. Orders , decorations , and medals.

State order Dynastic order See also: Order of chivalry Military order Order of merit Royal family order Fraternal order. Orders, decorations, and medals Wikipedia: WikiProject Orders, decorations, and medals Wikipedia: An award of an honorary title for past or future service with its roots in chivalry in the Middle Ages.

Fourth degree members belong to one of 3, assemblies, including 75 created in The college councils program started with the chartering of Notre Dame Council in , [] drawn from student members of the local Santa Maria Council Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society.

As part of the effort, the order distributed pamphlets, and lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America.

It would take an additional three years to collect the total amount. Since its founding, the Knights of Columbus has been involved in evangelization.

The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performing a valuable anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism.

It was with this experience in setting up educational programs that they were able to run education and occupational skills training for veterans returning from World War I.

In , the Knights started the Catholic Information Service CIS to provide low-cost Catholic publications for the general public as well as for parishes, schools, retreat houses, military installations, correctional facilities, legislatures, the medical community, and for individuals who request them.

Since then, CIS has printed millions of booklets, and thousands of people have enrolled in CIS correspondence and on-line courses.

This was "in response to blatant anti-Catholic bias in other religious media in order to educate non-Catholics about the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.

The order sponsors a number of international awards. The first, the Gaudium et Spes Award , is named after the document from the Second Vatican Council , and is the highest honor bestowed by the order.

The second international award, also only given "when merited", is the Caritas Award. Named for the theological virtue alternatively translated as either charity or love, it recognizes "extraordinary works of charity and service.

Additionally, at its annual convention each year, the order recognizes other individuals and councils with awards.

These include the Family of the Year award, and prizes for the best activities in the categories of church, community, council, culture of life , family, and youth.

Additionally, top selling general and field insurance agents are recognized, as are top recruiting individuals and councils.

While the Knights were active politically from an early date, in the years following the Second Vatican Council , as the "Catholic anti-defamation character" of the order began to diminish as Catholics became more accepted, the leadership "attempted to stimulate the membership to a greater awareness of the religious and moral issues confronting the Church.

The leadership of the order has been, at times, both liberal and conservative. Carmody and Luke E. Hart were both political conservatives, but John J.

The current Supreme Knight, Carl A. While the Knights of Columbus support political awareness and activity, United States councils are prohibited by tax laws from engaging in candidate endorsement and partisan political activity due to their non-profit status.

In addition to performing charitable works, the Knights of Columbus encourages its members to meet their responsibilities as Catholic citizens and to become active in the political life of their local communities, to vote and to speak out on the public issues of the day.

In the political realm, this means opening our public policy efforts and deliberations to the life of Christ and the teachings of the Church.

In accord with our Bishops, the Knights of Columbus has consistently maintained positions that take these concerns into account. The order opposed persecution of Catholics in Mexico during the Cristero War , and later proposed a framework for a lasting peace after World War II based on Catholic philosophy.

The Knights have also adopted resolutions opposing communism , [] advocating a culture of life, [nb 11] [] defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman, [] in defense of religious liberty, [] and promoting faithful citizenship.

As part of their efforts to build a culture of life , Supreme Conventions have adopted resolutions prohibiting people "who do not support the legal protection of unborn children, or who advocate the legalization of assisted suicide or euthanasia" from attending Knights of Columbus events or bestowing honors upon them.

During the 20th century, the order established the Commission on Religious Prejudices, and the Knights of Columbus Historical Commission which combated racism.

Kauffman, "If the Knights displayed a conservative tenor, it was not political conservatism but rather cultural conservatism.

In , the order launched Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests money in accordance with Catholic social teaching.

As of [update] , Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors has more than dioceses, religious orders, and other organizations as clients.

In addition to the wholly owned subsidiary, it also purchased 20 percent of Boston Advisors, a boutique investment management firm, managing assets for institutional and high-net-worth investors.

Many notable Catholic men from all over the world have been Knights of Columbus. In the United States, some of the most notable include John F.

In , six other Knights, known as the Mexican martyrs who were killed during the repression following the s revolution, were declared saints by Pope John Paul II.

Mullen and adopted at the second Supreme Council meeting on May 12, This represents the Catholic identity of the order.

Mounted on the shield are three objects: In ancient Rome , the fasces was carried before magistrates as an emblem of authority.

The order uses it as "symbolic of authority which must exist in any tightly-bonded and efficiently operating organization. The short sword, or dagger, was a weapon used by medieval knights.

The shield as a whole, with the letters "K of C", represents "Catholic Knighthood in organized merciful action. The Fourth Degree emblem features a dove, a cross, and a globe.

In the tradition of the Knights these symbols "typify the union of the three Divine Persons in one Godhead, referred to as the most Blessed Trinity.

Styled with the continents of the western hemisphere in white, the blue globe represents God the Father. A red Isabella cross, for the queen who sponsored Columbus, serves as a symbol of God the Son.

The white dove is a symbol of peace and God the Holy Spirit. The emblem of the Squires symbolizes the ideals which identify a squire.

On the arms of a Maltese cross are the letters P , which represents the physical development necessary to make the body as strong as the spirit; I , which stands for the intellectual development needed for cultural and mental maturity; S , which represents the spiritual growth and practice of our faith; and C , which stands for the development of citizenship and civic life.

C , representing Christ and also Christopher Columbus; S , the Squires; and K , the Knights of Columbus, by whom the Squires program is sponsored, are intertwined in the center of the cross.

They are the three foundations of the program. The Latin motto, " Esto Dignus ", encircles the emblem. Translated into English, it means "Be Worthy".

The newer organization renamed itself the Catholic Daughters of the Americas in and both have structures independent of the Knights of Columbus.

A proposal in to establish councils for women did not pass, and was never proposed again. Founded in in Duluth, Minnesota, this international fraternity for boys 10—18 has grown to over 5, circles.

Squires have fun and share their Catholic faith, help people in need, and enjoy the company of friends in social, family, athletic, cultural, civic and spiritual activities.

Through their local circle, Squires work and socialize as a group of friends, elect their own officers, and develop into Catholic leaders.

The Squire Roses are a youth sorority run by individual state councils for Catholic girls between the ages of 10 and One representative from each State Council for the first two thousand insurance members, and one representative for the first two thousand associate members, and one representative for each additional two thousand insurance members or major part thereof and one representative for each additional two thousand associate members or major part thereof represented in said State Council as shall appear from the records of the Supreme Secretary.

This excess amount of insurance membership will then be applied toward an additional associate member delegate pursuant to the requirements of this section.

But no State Council shall be entitled to more than eight elected representatives to the Supreme Council. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Not to be confused with Knights of St Columba. History of the Knights of Columbus. Charitable activities of the Knights of Columbus.

Supreme Officers of the Knights of Columbus. Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus. Political activity of the Knights of Columbus.

List of Knights of Columbus. Murray , Comptroller of the Currency , as Grand Knight. Keane , first rector of the university — , and later Archbishop of Dubuque, Iowa.

Retrieved June 28, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved March 18, Knights of Columbus Supreme Council. Archived from the original PDF on December 27, Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved January 18, Retrieved January 22, Its Influence on the Development of the Welfare State —".

Retrieved December 24, University of Chicago Kent School of Law. Retrieved October 16, Archived from the original on May 23, Retrieved November 13, Archived from the original PDF on September 5, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved March 29, Retrieved September 12, Retrieved March 25, Retrieved July 14, Retrieved May 31,

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